Generally, the lyophilization process consists of three basic stages:
Primary drying (sublimation)
Secondary drying (desorption)
The stages progress as follows:
The product is passed through freezing process.
Depending on the type of the product, the duration of the freezing process is kept longer or shorter.
At the primary drying phase, a slight vacuum is applied in the lyophilization cabinet in which the product is present, and as the temperature decreases, higher energy molecules fly out by themselves.
As for the secondary drying phase, vacuum is taken to the maximum level and the final water molecules that are crystallized and remain clinged to the material are drawn out of the material.
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