The materials are frozen in the device, called as Lyophilization Lyophilizator, at -50 to -600 ° C.
It creates the vacuum environment that will provide both sublimation and drying. Also, the products that are frozen in another cooler may be placed in this device. Instead of discharging the resulting water vapor with a vacuum pump, they are condensed in condensers and transformed into ice.
This ice is thawed and taken out before the next cycle. Cycle freezing consists of primary drying and secondary drying stages.
In secondary drying, also the last water molecules clinging to the material are taken out by means of vacuum. The time varies from product to product. If the freezing speed is slow, big ice crystals, if it is fast, small ice crystals are formed. This in turn affects the drying rate and speed.
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